Dr Unai Diaz-Orueta

Psychology, ALL Institute

Lecturer

John Hume Building
3rd
3.11
(01) 708 3302

Biography

Unai Díaz-Orueta, Ph.D., received his doctorate in psychology from the University of Deusto, Spain in 2006. Since 2000, he has worked as a clinical psychologist in a variety of settings, including the Crownsville Hospital Center, Crownsville, Maryland (EE.UU., 2000-2001), Hospital Psiquiátrico de Bermeo, (Spain, 2001-2002), La Loma Geriatric Residence, Castro-Urdiales (Spain, 2003-2005), and Zutitu Ltd (2005-2006). With a grant from the Oriol-Urquijo University-Foundation, he developed his doctoral dissertation, “Effects of psychological intervention in cognitive decline of residentialized elderly people,” published by UMI Dissertation Publishing, Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Additionally, his experience includes teaching courses and workshops in maintenance of cognitive functions, wellbeing, and laugh-therapy for elderly people at IPACE Ltd, Vitoria (Spain, 2007-2008). From 2008-2012, he worked as a research psychologist at Fundación INGEMA, in several projects related to aging and physical disability. From May 2012 to December 2015, he worked first as a researcher at the R+D+i Department and then as R+D+I Director of Nesplora S.L. (Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain), and since May 2014, as a Collaborator Professor for the Neuropsychology and Education Master’s Degree of the UNIR -International University of La Rioja (Spain). From February 2016 to January 2018, he worked as a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions Individual Fellow (Research Fellow) in Dublin City University (Dublin, Ireland) on the EC funded project “E-SPACE: European Standardised Process Approach to Cognitive Evaluation in older people”. From February 2018, he works as a Lecturer in Psychology in Maynooth University, Ireland.

Research Interests

  1. Neuropsychological assessment using a process-based approach.
  2. Virtual and augmented reality applications in (neuro)psychological assessment and intervention.
  3. Cognitive rehabilitation procedures (both traditional and technology/game-based approaches).
  4. Serious games for health.

Research Projects

  Project Role Funding Body / Program Description Start Date End Date Award (€)
CAPTAIN - Coach Assistant via Projected and Tangible Interface Principal Investigator in Maynooth University - Ethical manager of the project EU Horizon 2020 / 01-DEC-17 30-NOV-20
E-SPACE: European Standardised Process Approach to Cognitive Evaluation in older people Postdoctoral Fellow / 01-FEB-16

Books

  Year Publication
2010 El proceso de envejecer: una perspectiva integradora: evaluación e intervención biopsicosocial.
Matellanes, B., Diaz-Orueta, U., & Montero, J.M. (2010) El proceso de envejecer: una perspectiva integradora: evaluación e intervención biopsicosocial. Bilbao, Spain: Deusto Publicaciones. [Details]
2010 Gimnasia de la Memoria: un programa de estimulación cognitiva para personas mayores basado en objetivos.
Diaz-Orueta, U., Matellanes, B., & Montero, J.M. (2010) Gimnasia de la Memoria: un programa de estimulación cognitiva para personas mayores basado en objetivos. Bilbao, Spain: Deusto Publicaciones. [Details]
2007 Effects of psychological intervention in cognitive decline of residentialized elderly people.
Díaz-Orueta, U., Matellanes, B., & Montero, J.M. (2007) Effects of psychological intervention in cognitive decline of residentialized elderly people. Ann Harbor: UMI Dissertation Publishing. [Details]

Book Chapters

  Year Publication
2019 'Virtual School Environments for Neuropsychological Assessment and Training: Learning in the Age of Emerging Technologies'
Parsons, T.D., Duffield, T.C., Mcmahan, T., & Diaz-Orueta, U. (2019) 'Virtual School Environments for Neuropsychological Assessment and Training: Learning in the Age of Emerging Technologies' In: Thomas D. Parsons (eds). Mind, Brain and Technology. Switzerland: Springer. [DOI] [Details]
2019 'Extending Exergame-Based Physical Activity for Older Adults: The e-Coaching Approach for Increased Adherence'
Petsani, D., Konstantinidis, E., Diaz-Orueta, U., Hopper, L., & Bamidis, P.D. (2019) 'Extending Exergame-Based Physical Activity for Older Adults: The e-Coaching Approach for Increased Adherence' In: P.D. Bamidis (eds). Information and Communication Technologies for Ageing Well and e-Health. Switzerland: Springer. [Details]
2017 'Advances in Neuropsychological Assessment of Attention: From Initial Computerized Continuous Performance Tests to AULA'
Diaz-Orueta, U. (2017) 'Advances in Neuropsychological Assessment of Attention: From Initial Computerized Continuous Performance Tests to AULA' In: R.L. Kane and T.D. Parsons (eds). The Role of Technology in Clinical Neuropsychology. New York: Oxford University Press. [Details]
2016 'Serious Games and Gamified Tools for Psychological Intervention'
Diaz-Orueta, U. (2016) 'Serious Games and Gamified Tools for Psychological Intervention' In: D. Villani, P. Cipresso, A. Gaggioli, & G. Riva (eds). Integrating Technology in Positive Psychology Practice. HERSEY, PA (USA): IGI GLOBAL. [DOI] [Details]
2015 'Cognitive Fitness, Assessment, and Cognitive Rehabilitation of Older Population: From MMSE to Computerized and VR Based Tools'
Diaz-Orueta, U. (2015) 'Cognitive Fitness, Assessment, and Cognitive Rehabilitation of Older Population: From MMSE to Computerized and VR Based Tools' In: Y.S. Morsi, A. Shukla & C.P. Rathore (eds). Optimizing Assistive Technologies for Aging Populations. HERSEY, PA (USA): IGI GLOBAL. [DOI] [Details]
2015 'Art, Drawing Task Processes, and Identity Awareness: A Case Study on the Retro-Genesis Phenomenon as an Indicator of the Progress of Dementia'
Navarro, A., Díaz-Orueta, U., Martín-Niño, L., & Elías, M. (2015) 'Art, Drawing Task Processes, and Identity Awareness: A Case Study on the Retro-Genesis Phenomenon as an Indicator of the Progress of Dementia' In: C. Dick-Muehlke, R. Li, & M. Orleans (eds). Psychosocial Studies of the Individual's Changing Perspectives in Alzheimer's Disease. HERSEY, PA (USA): IGI GLOBAL. [DOI] [Details]
2015 'Programas para desarrollar la atención y mejorar el déficit de atención y la hiperactividad'
Diaz-Orueta, U. (2015) 'Programas para desarrollar la atención y mejorar el déficit de atención y la hiperactividad' In: P. Martin-Lobo (eds). Procesos y Programas de Neuropsicología Educativa. Madrid, Spain: Centro Nacional de Innovación e Investigación Educativa (CNIIE), Madrid, Spain. [Details]
2014 'Virtual reality for neuropsychological assessment'
Diaz-Orueta, U. and Lizarazu, B. and Climent, G. and Banterla, F. (2014) 'Virtual reality for neuropsychological assessment' In: Minhua Ma,Lakhmi C. Jain,Paul Anderson (eds). Virtual, Augmented Reality and Serious Games for Healthcare 1. London: Springer. [DOI] [Details]
2014 'Rehabilitation Gaming'
Nap, HH;Diaz-Orueta, U (2014) 'Rehabilitation Gaming' In: Gamification for Human Factors Integration: Social, Education, and Psychological Issues. HERSEY: IGI GLOBAL. [DOI] [Details]
2013 'Ethical Implications of Technologies That “Support” Ageing with Dementia at Home'
Diaz-Orueta, U. & Urdaneta, E. (2013) 'Ethical Implications of Technologies That “Support” Ageing with Dementia at Home' In: S. Gutwirth, R. Leenes, P. de Hert, & Y. Poullet (eds). European Data Protection: Coming of Age. Berlin, Germany: Springer. [DOI] [Details]
2012 'Rehabilitation Gaming'
Nap, HH & Diaz-Orueta, U (2012) 'Rehabilitation Gaming' In: S. Arnab, I. Dunwell & K. Debattista (eds). Serious Games for Healthcare: Applications and Implications. HERSEY, PA (USA): IGI GLOBAL. [DOI] [Details]
2011 'Meeting the Needs of Diverse User Groups: Benefits and Costs of Pluggable User Interfaces in Designing for Older People and People with Cognitive Impairments'
Zimmermann, G., Alexandersson, J., Buiza, C., Urdaneta, E., Díaz-Orueta, U., Carrasco, E., Klima, M., & Pfalzgraf, A. (2011) 'Meeting the Needs of Diverse User Groups: Benefits and Costs of Pluggable User Interfaces in Designing for Older People and People with Cognitive Impairments' In: J. Soar, R. Swindell, & P. Tsang (eds). Intelligent Technologies for Bridging the Grey Digital Divide. HERSEY, PA (USA): IGI GLOBAL. [DOI] [Details]

Peer Reviewed Journals

  Year Publication
2020 'Shaping technologies for older adults with and without dementia: Reflections on ethics and preferences'
Diaz-Orueta, U;Hopper, L;Konstantinidis, E (2020) 'Shaping technologies for older adults with and without dementia: Reflections on ethics and preferences'. Health Informatics Journal, [DOI] [Details]
2019 'Virtual Reality-based Assessment and Rating Scales in ADHD Diagnosis'
Zulueta, A;Diaz-Orueta, U;Crespo-Eguilaz, N;Torrano, F (2019) 'Virtual Reality-based Assessment and Rating Scales in ADHD Diagnosis'. Psicologia Educativa, 25 :13-22 [DOI] [Details]
2019 'Features and psychometric properties of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment: Review and proposal of a process-based approach version (MoCA-PA)'
Blanco-Campal, A;Diaz-Orueta, U;Navarro-Prados, AB;Burke, T;Libon, DJ;Lamar, M (2019) 'Features and psychometric properties of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment: Review and proposal of a process-based approach version (MoCA-PA)'. Applied Neuropsychology:Adult, [DOI] [Details]
2019 'Health Related Quality of Life and Cognitive Decline in Older Populations: Preliminary Results From NeuroDemeNPsia Study'
Onandia-Hinchado, I;Diaz-Orueta, U (2019) 'Health Related Quality of Life and Cognitive Decline in Older Populations: Preliminary Results From NeuroDemeNPsia Study'. Journal of Applied Gerontology, [DOI] [Details]
2019 'Health related quality of life in individuals with cognitive decline and discrepancies between patients and their proxies'
Onandia-Hinchado I.;Diaz-Orueta U. (2019) 'Health related quality of life in individuals with cognitive decline and discrepancies between patients and their proxies'. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 85 [DOI] [Details]
2019 'A New Approach for Ageing at Home: The CAPTAIN System'
Konstantinidis EI;Petsani D;Conti G;Billis A;Conotter V;Chican G;Lorenzo TL;Rodríguez AR;Fraile SH;Beristain A;Epelde G;Diaz-Orueta U;Hopper L;Kostin M;Almeida R;Losada R;Kniejski W;Nollo G;Tessarolo F;Bamidis PD; (2019) 'A New Approach for Ageing at Home: The CAPTAIN System'. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 264 [DOI] [Details]
2018 'Inclusion of service robots in the daily lives of frail older users: A step-by-step definition procedure on users' requirements'
García-Soler Á;Facal D;Díaz-Orueta U;Pigini L;Blasi L;Qiu R; (2018) 'Inclusion of service robots in the daily lives of frail older users: A step-by-step definition procedure on users' requirements'. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 74 [DOI] [Details]
2018 'Adapting the Research Development and Innovation (RD & I) value chain in psychology to educational psychology area'
de la Fuente J.;Kauffman D.;Díaz-Orueta U.;Kauffman Y. (2018) 'Adapting the Research Development and Innovation (RD & I) value chain in psychology to educational psychology area'. Frontiers in Psychology, 9 (AUG) [DOI] [IR Link] [Details]
2018 'Rapid review of cognitive screening instruments in MCI: Proposal for a process-based approach modification of overlapping tasks in select widely used instruments'
Díaz-Orueta U.;Blanco-Campal A.;Burke T. (2018) 'Rapid review of cognitive screening instruments in MCI: Proposal for a process-based approach modification of overlapping tasks in select widely used instruments'. International Psychogeriatrics, 30 (5):663-672 [DOI] [Details]
2017 'Relationship Between Personality Traits, Generativity, and Life Satisfaction in Individuals Attending University Programs for Seniors'
Navarro-Prados AB;Serrate-Gonzalez S;Muñoz-Rodríguez JM;Díaz-Orueta U; (2017) 'Relationship Between Personality Traits, Generativity, and Life Satisfaction in Individuals Attending University Programs for Seniors'. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, [DOI] [Details]
2017 '[Process-based approach neuropsychological assessment: review of the evidence and proposal for improvement of dementia screening tools]'
Diaz-Orueta U;Blanco-Campal A;Burke T; (2017) '[Process-based approach neuropsychological assessment: review of the evidence and proposal for improvement of dementia screening tools]'. Revista de Neurologia, 64 (11) [Details]
2016 'AULA-Advanced Virtual Reality Tool for the Assessment of Attention: Normative Study in Spain'
Iriarte Y;Diaz-Orueta U;Cueto E;Irazustabarrena P;Banterla F;Climent G; (2016) 'AULA-Advanced Virtual Reality Tool for the Assessment of Attention: Normative Study in Spain'. Journal Of Attention Disorders, 20 (6) [DOI] [Details]
2016 '[Efficacy of lisdexamphetamine to improve the behavioural and cognitive symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: treatment monitored by means of the AULA Nesplora virtual reality test]'
Diaz-Orueta U;Fernandez-Fernandez MA;Morillo-Rojas MD;Climent G; (2016) '[Efficacy of lisdexamphetamine to improve the behavioural and cognitive symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: treatment monitored by means of the AULA Nesplora virtual reality test]'. Revista de Neurologia, 63 (1) [Details]
2016 '[Memory assessment by means of virtual reality: its present and future]'
Diaz-Orueta U;Climent G;Cardas-Ibanez J;Alonso L;Olmo-Osa J;Tirapu-Ustarroz J; (2016) '[Memory assessment by means of virtual reality: its present and future]'. Revista de Neurologia, 62 (2) [Details]
2015 'Older people's perceptions and experiences of a digital learning game'
Nap, H.H. and Diaz-Orueta, U. and González, M.F. and Lozar-Manfreda, K. and Facal, D. and Dolničar, V. and Oyarzun, D. and Ranga, M.-M. and de Schutter, B. (2015) 'Older people's perceptions and experiences of a digital learning game'. Gerontechnology, 13 (3):322-331 [DOI] [Details]
2014 'Isla Calma: Virtual reality for pain and anxiety distraction when coping with dental fear [Isla Calma: Realidad virtual para la distracción del dolor y la ansiedad en el afrontamiento del miedo al dentista]'
Díaz-Orueta, U., Banterla, F. and Climent, G. (2014) 'Isla Calma: Virtual reality for pain and anxiety distraction when coping with dental fear [Isla Calma: Realidad virtual para la distracción del dolor y la ansiedad en el afrontamiento del miedo al dentista]'. Ansiedad y Estres, 20 (2-3):127-141 [Details]
2014 'Role of cognitive and functional performance in the interactions between elderly people with cognitive decline and an avatar on TV'
Diaz-Orueta, U. and Etxaniz, A. and Gonzalez, M.F. and Buiza, C. and Urdaneta, E. and Yanguas, J. (2014) 'Role of cognitive and functional performance in the interactions between elderly people with cognitive decline and an avatar on TV'. Universal Access in the Information Society, 13 (1):89-97 [DOI] [Details]
2014 'AULA virtual reality test as an attention measure: convergent validity with Conners' Continuous Performance Test'
Díaz-Orueta U;Garcia-López C;Crespo-Eguílaz N;Sánchez-Carpintero R;Climent G;Narbona J; (2014) 'AULA virtual reality test as an attention measure: convergent validity with Conners' Continuous Performance Test'. Child Neuropsychology : A Journal On Normal And Abnormal Development In Childhood And Adolescence, 20 (3) [DOI] [Details]
2014 '[Ecological validity and multitasking environments in the evaluation of the executive functions]'
Bombín-González I;Cifuentes-Rodríguez A;Climent-Martínez G;Luna-Lario P;Cardas-Ibáñez J;Tirapu-Ustárroz J;Díaz-Orueta U; (2014) '[Ecological validity and multitasking environments in the evaluation of the executive functions]'. Revista de Neurologia, 59 (2) [Details]
2014 '[Neuropsychological evaluation of the executive functions by means of virtual reality]'
Climent-Martínez G;Luna-Lario P;Bombín-González I;Cifuentes-Rodríguez A;Tirapu-Ustárroz J;Díaz-Orueta U; (2014) '[Neuropsychological evaluation of the executive functions by means of virtual reality]'. Revista de Neurologia, 58 (10) [Details]
2013 'AsTeRICS: a new flexible solution for people with motor disabilities in upper limbs and its implication for rehabilitation procedures'
Morales B;Diaz-Orueta U;García-Soler Á;Pecyna K;Ossmann R;Nussbaum G;Veigl C;Weiss C;Acedo J;Soria-Frisch A; (2013) 'AsTeRICS: a new flexible solution for people with motor disabilities in upper limbs and its implication for rehabilitation procedures'. Disability and rehabilitation. Assistive technology, 8 (6) [DOI] [Details]
2013 'Providing universally accessible interactive services through TV sets: Implementation and validation with elderly users'
Epelde, G., Valencia, X. and Carrasco, E. and Posada, J. and Abascal, J. and Diaz-Orueta, U. and Zinnikus, I. and Husodo-Schulz, C. (2013) 'Providing universally accessible interactive services through TV sets: Implementation and validation with elderly users'. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 67 (2):497-528 [DOI] [Details]
2012 'Isla Calma, a Novel Virtual Reality Environment for Pain and Anxiety Distraction: Report on Usability, Acceptability, and Subjective Experience'
Diaz-Orueta U;Alvarado S;Gutiérrez D;Climent G;Banterla F; (2012) 'Isla Calma, a Novel Virtual Reality Environment for Pain and Anxiety Distraction: Report on Usability, Acceptability, and Subjective Experience'. Games For Health Journal, 1 (5) [DOI] [Details]
2012 'What Is the Key for Older People to Show Interest in Playing Digital Learning Games? Initial Qualitative Findings from the LEAGE Project on a Multicultural European Sample'
Diaz-Orueta U;Facal D;Nap HH;Ranga MM; (2012) 'What Is the Key for Older People to Show Interest in Playing Digital Learning Games? Initial Qualitative Findings from the LEAGE Project on a Multicultural European Sample'. Games For Health Journal, 1 (2) [DOI] [Details]
2011 '[Short evaluation of cognitive state in advanced stages of dementia: preliminary results of the Spanish validation of the Severe Mini-Mental State Examination]'
Buiza C;Navarro A;Díaz-Orueta U;González MF;Alaba J;Arriola E;Hernández C;Zulaica A;Yanguas JJ; (2011) '[Short evaluation of cognitive state in advanced stages of dementia: preliminary results of the Spanish validation of the Severe Mini-Mental State Examination]'. Revista Espanola de Geriatria y Gerontologia, 46 (3) [DOI] [Details]
2010 '[Cognitive reserve: evidence, limitations and future research lines]'
Díaz-Orueta U;Buiza-Bueno C;Yanguas-Lezaun J; (2010) '[Cognitive reserve: evidence, limitations and future research lines]'. Revista Espanola de Geriatria y Gerontologia, 45 (3) [DOI] [Details]

Other Journals

  Year Publication
2016 'Rehabilitación de la Memoria: Historia, Factores Implicados y Enfoques de Tratamiento'
Krch, D., Diaz-Orueta, U., Santana, E., & Vasquez, E. (2016) 'Rehabilitación de la Memoria: Historia, Factores Implicados y Enfoques de Tratamiento' Revista Neuropsicologia, Neuropsiquiatria y Neurociencias, 16 (1) :91-120. [Details]
2015 'Evaluation of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by means of Virtual Reality. Comparison with Behavioural Scales [Article in Spanish]'
Moreno-García, I., Espinosa-Oneto, N., Camacho-Vara del Rey, C., & Díaz-Orueta, U. (2015) 'Evaluation of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by means of Virtual Reality. Comparison with Behavioural Scales [Article in Spanish]' Comunicación y Pedagogía, 287 :33-38. [Details]
2013 'AULA Nesplora: Progress in assessing attention processes - a convergent validity study with the Caras perception of differences test. [Article in Spanish]'
Zulueta, A., Iriarte, Y., Díaz-Orueta, U., & Climent, G. (2013) 'AULA Nesplora: Progress in assessing attention processes - a convergent validity study with the Caras perception of differences test. [Article in Spanish]' ISEP Science, 4 :3-10. [Details]
2012 'AULA: an ecological virtual reality test with distractors for evaluating attention in children and adolescents'
Díaz-Orueta, U.., Iriarte, Y., Climent, G., & Banterla, F. (2012) 'AULA: an ecological virtual reality test with distractors for evaluating attention in children and adolescents' Journal of Virtual Reality, 5 (2) :1-20. [Details]
2011 'Generalization of Results from Cognitive Stimulation Programs to Real Life: Is it Possible?'
Díaz-Orueta, U., Facal-Mayo, D., Buiza-Bueno, C., et al. (2011) 'Generalization of Results from Cognitive Stimulation Programs to Real Life: Is it Possible?' Alzheimer’s Disease Research Journal, 2 (4) :283-306. [Details]
2010 'Bringing the elderly into the mainstream project of e-society: the VITAL project'
Zinnikus, I., Fischer, K., Alexandersson, J. & Díaz, U. (2010) 'Bringing the elderly into the mainstream project of e-society: the VITAL project' IADIS International Journal on WWW/Internet, 7 :118-135. [Details]

Conference Publications

  Year Publication
2019 Extending Exergame-Based Physical Activity for Older Adults: The e-Coaching Approach for Increased Adherence
Petsani D.;Kostantinidis E.;Diaz-Orueta U.;Hopper L.;Bamidis P. (2019) Extending Exergame-Based Physical Activity for Older Adults: The e-Coaching Approach for Increased Adherence Communications in Computer and Information Science , pp.108-125 [DOI] [Details]
2019 A new approach for ageing at home: The captain system
Konstantinidis E.;Petsani D.;Conti G.;Billis A.;Conotter V.;Chican G.;Lorenzo T.;Rodríguez A.;Fraile S.;Beristain A.;Epelde G.;Diaz-Orueta U.;Hopper L.;Kostin M.;Almeida R.;Losada R.;Kniejski W.;Nollo G.;Tessarolo F.;Bamidis P. (2019) A new approach for ageing at home: The captain system Studies in Health Technology and Informatics , pp.1704-1705 [DOI] [Details]
2012 Addressing accessibility challenges of people with motor disabilities by means of AsTeRICS: A step by step definition of technical requirements
García-Soler, A. and Diaz-Orueta, U. and Ossmann, R. and Nussbaum, G. and Veigl, C. and Weiss, C. and Pecyna, K. (2012) Addressing accessibility challenges of people with motor disabilities by means of AsTeRICS: A step by step definition of technical requirements International Conference on Computers for Handicapped Persons , pp.164-171 [DOI] [Details]

Editorial

  Year Publication
2019 Editorial: Psychology, Technological Innovation, and Entrepreneurship.
de la Fuente J.;Kauffman D.;Díaz-Orueta U. (2019) Editorial: Psychology, Technological Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. Editorial [DOI] [Details]

Magazine Article

  Year Publication
2018 COACH ASSISTANT VIA PROJECTED AND TANGIBLE INTERFACE (CAPTAIN): CO-PRODUCTION OF A RADICALLY NEW HUMAN COMPUTER INTERFACE WITH OLDER ADULTS.
Hopper, L;Diaz-Orueta, U;Konstantinidis, E;Bamidis, P (2018) COACH ASSISTANT VIA PROJECTED AND TANGIBLE INTERFACE (CAPTAIN): CO-PRODUCTION OF A RADICALLY NEW HUMAN COMPUTER INTERFACE WITH OLDER ADULTS. OXFORD: Magazine Article [DOI] [Details]

Languages

  Language Reading Writing Speaking
English Fluent Fluent Fluent
Italian Functional Basic Functional
Basque Fluent Fluent Fluent
Spanish Fluent Fluent Fluent

Teaching Interests

Neuropsychology.
Process-based approach to neuropsychological assessment.
New developments and technologies for neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation.