Dr Gerard McCarthy

Geography, ICARUS

Associate Professor

Laraghbryan House
(01) 708 6550


Gerard McCarthy is an oceanographer working in ICARUS (Irish Climate Research and Analysis Unit) in the Department of Geography at Maynooth University, where he leads a team of ten oceanographers and climate scientists.

His research interests are in the role of the ocean in climate, specialising in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), with particular interest in evolution of the AMOC in the 20th century. Since starting work in Maynooth in late 2017, he has worked on piecing together Ireland’s sea level change since the mid-19th century.

He leads the A4 project funded by the Marine Institute, is co-Investigator on EirOOS—an Irish ocean observing system, and a Funded Investigator on the SFI-funded iCRAG, and a member of the Línte na Farraige project. He leads a workpackage on the JPI Oceans and Climate project ROADMAP. He has been involved in a number of European Commission funded projects including the Thor, NACLIM, and Blue-Action.

He teaches oceanography modules on both the Geography undergraduate curriculum and on the MSc in Climate Change. He is a keen ocean-going scientist and has taught on a number of field courses including participation in the SMART sea school training on the Celtic Voyager from 2018-2021.

Gerard previously worked at the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK, where he worked with the RAPID team measuring the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.

Research Interests

Current Funding

MACMOMO iCRAG Fellowship, Supervisor                2022–2026
ReTRO Cullen Fellowship, Supervisor                         2022–2026
JPI Oceans and Climate ROADMAP, Lead PI              2020–2024
A4: Oceans in a changing climate, Lead PI                 2019–2024
PREDICT: Science Foundation Ireland, Co-I                2018–2022

Former Funding

RAPID, Senior Scientist                                               2011-2017
Horizon 2020 Blue Action, PI & WP co-leader             2016–2021
FP7 NACLIM, PI                                                           2012-2016
FP7 THOR, Postdoc                                                     2011-2012

Post Doctoral Fellows / Research Team

Researcher Name Project Funding Body
Samantha Hallam Roadmap
André Duesterhus A4: Aigéin, Aeráid, agus athrú Atlantaigh
Levke Caesar A4: Aigéin, Aeráid, agus athrú Atlantaigh
Stephen Ogungbenro A4: Aigéin, Aeráid, agus athrú Atlantaigh

Peer Reviewed Journal

Year Publication
2024 Shoari Nejad, A.; McCarthy, G.D.; Kelleher, B.; Grey, A.; Parnell, A. (2024) 'Vector time series modelling of turbidity in Dublin Bay'. Journal of Applied Statistics, . [Link] [DOI]
2024 Daly, E.; Nolan, G.; Berry, A.; Büscher, J.V.; Cave, R.R.; Caesar, L.; Cronin, M.; Fennell, S.; Lyons, K.; McAleer, A.; McCarthy, G.D.; McGovern, E.; McGovern, J.V.; McGrath, T.; O'Donnell, G.; Pereiro, D.; Thomas, R.; Vaughan, L.; White, M.; Cusack, C. (2024) 'Diurnal to interannual variability in the Northeast Atlantic from hydrographic transects and fixed time-series across the Rockall Trough'. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 204 . [Link] [DOI] [Full-Text]
2023 Gerard McCarthy, Levke Caesar (2023) 'Can we trust projections of AMOC weakening based on climate models that cannot reproduce the past?'. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 381 (2262). [Link] [DOI] [Full-Text]
2023 McCarthy, G.D.; Plecha, S.; Charria, G.; Simon, A.; Poppeschi, C.; Russo, A. (2023) 'The marine heatwave west of Ireland in June 2023'. Weather, 78 . [Link] [DOI]
2023 Zoë A. Roseby Katherine Southall Fermin Alvarez-Agoues Niamh Cahill Gerard D. McCarthy Robin J. Edwards (2023) 'Two centuries of relative sea-level rise in Dublin, Ireland, reconstructed by Geological Tide Gauge'. Open Quaternary, 9: 3 :1-19. [Link] [DOI] [Full-Text]
2023 Hallam, S.; McCarthy, G.D.; Feng, X.; Josey, S.A.; Harris, E.; Düsterhus, A.; Ogungbenro, S.; Hirschi, J.J.M. (2023) 'The relationship between sea surface temperature anomalies, wind and translation speed and North Atlantic tropical cyclone rainfall over ocean and land'. Environmental Research Communications, 5 . [Link] [DOI] [Full-Text]
2023 McCarthy, G.D., Burmeister, K., Cunningham, S.A., Düsterhus, A., FrajkaWilliams, E., Graham, J.A., Hodge, K.R., Holliday, N.P., Inall, M., Jackson, L.C., Menary, M.B., Moat, B.I., Moffa-Sanchez, P., Oltmanns, M., Polton, J.A., Rabe, B., Robson, J. and Thornalley, D.J.R. (2023) 'Climate change impacts on ocean circulation relevant to the UK and Ireland'. Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership (MCCIP), (Science Review 2023):1-29. [DOI]
2022 Michel, S.L.L.; Swingedouw, D.; Ortega, P.; Gastineau, G.; Mignot, J.; McCarthy, G.; Khodri, M. (2022) 'Early warning signal for a tipping point suggested by a millennial Atlantic Multidecadal Variability reconstruction'. Nature Communications, 13 . [Link] [DOI] [Full-Text]
2022 Hallam S.; Josey S.A.; McCarthy G.D.; Hirschi J.J.M. (2022) 'A regional (land–ocean) comparison of the seasonal to decadal variability of the Northern Hemisphere jet stream 1871–2011'. Climate Dynamics, . [DOI]
2022 Shoari Nejad A.; Parnell A.C.; Greene A.; Thorne P.; Kelleher B.P.; Devoy R.J.N.; McCarthy G. (2022) 'A newly reconciled dataset for identifying sea level rise and variability in Dublin Bay'. Ocean Science, 18 (2):511-522. [DOI] [Full-Text]
2022 Caínzos, V., Hernández-Guerra, A., McCarthy, G. D., McDonagh, E. L., Cubas Armas, M., & Pérez-Hernández, M. D. (2022) 'Thirty Years of GOSHIP and WOCE Data: Atlantic Overturning of Mass, Heat, and Freshwater Transport'. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, . https://doi. org/10.1029/2021GL096527 [Full-Text]
2022 McCarthy G.D.; Berry A. (2022) 'Observation of a meteotsunami on the south coast of Ireland'. Weather, 77 (8):281-282. [DOI] [Full-Text]
2022 Harris E.A.; Marsh R.; Grist J.P.; McCarthy G.D. (2022) 'The water mass transformation framework and variability in hurricane activity'. Climate Dynamics, . [DOI] [Full-Text]
2021 Worthington, EL; Moat, BI; Smeed, DA; Mecking, JV; Marsh, R; McCarthy, GD (2021) 'A 30-year reconstruction of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation shows no decline'. Ocean Science, 17 :285-299. [DOI] [Full-Text]
2021 Caesar, L; McCarthy, GD; Thornalley, DJR; Cahill, N; Rahmstorf, S (2021) 'Current Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation weakest in last millennium'. Nature Geoscience, . [DOI] [Full-Text]
2021 Diabaté S.T.; Swingedouw D.; Hirschi J.J.M.; Duchez A.; Leadbitter P.J.; Haigh I.D.; Mccarthy G.D. (2021) 'Western boundary circulation and coastal sea-level variability in Northern Hemisphere oceans'. Ocean Science, 17 (5):1449-1471. [DOI] [Full-Text]
2021 Pugh D.T.; Bridge E.; Edwards R.; Hogarth P.; Westbrook G.; Woodworth P.L.; McCarthy G.D. (2021) 'Mean sea level and tidal change in Ireland since 1842: A case study of Cork'. Ocean Science, 17 (6):1623-1637. [DOI] [Full-Text]
2021 Berx B.; Volkov D.; Baehr J.; Baringer M.O.; Burmeister K.; Cunningham S.; De Jong M.F.; De Steur L.; Dong S.; Frajka-Williams E.; Goni G.J.; Holliday N.P.; Hummels R.; Ingvaldsen R.; Jochumsen K.; Johns W.; Jónsson S.; Kieke D.; Krishfield R.; Lankhorst M.; Larsen K.M.H.; Le Bras I.; Lee C.M.; Li F.; Macrander A.; McCarthy G.; Moat B.; Moritz M.; Perez R.; Polyakov I.; Proshutinsky A.; Rabe B.; Rhein M.; Schmid C.; Skagseth Ø.; Smeed D.A.; Timmermans M.L.; Von Appen W.J.; Williams B.; Woodgate R.; Yashayaev I.; Brandt P.; Lozier S.; Mertens C.; Karstensen J. (2021) 'Climate-Relevant Ocean Transport Measurements in the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans'. Oceanography, 34 (4):10-11. [DOI] [Full-Text]
2020 Conor Murphy, Robert L. Wilby, Tom K. Matthews, Peter Thorne, Ciaran Broderick, Rowan Fealy, Julia Hall, Shaun Harrigan, Phil Jones, Gerard McCarthy, Neil Macdonald, Simon Noone, Ciara Ryan (2020) 'Multi‐century trends to wetter winters and drier summers in the England and Wales precipitation series explained by observational and sampling bias in early records'. International Journal of Climatology, 40 (1):610-619. [Link] https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6208 [Full-Text]
2020 Dempsey R.; Parnell A.; Maccarron P.; McCarthy G.D. (2020) 'Excess mortality in dublin during the covid-19 pandemic: Using rip.ie as a geographical source'. Irish Geography, 53 (2):163-172. [DOI] [Full-Text]
2020 Bryden, HL; Johns, WE; King, BA; McCarthy, G; McDonagh, EL; Moat, B; Smeed, DA (2020) 'Reduction in Ocean Heat Transport at 26 degrees N since 2008 Cools the Eastern Subpolar Gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean'. Journal of Climate, 33 :1677-1689. [DOI] [Full-Text]
2020 McCarthy, G.D. and Jackson, L.C. and Cunningham, S.A. and Holliday, N.P and Smeed, D.A. and Stevens, D.P. (2020) 'Effects of climate change on the Atlantic Heat Conveyor relevant to the UK'. :190-207.
2019 Little, Christopher M and Hu, Aixue and Hughes, Chris W and McCarthy, Gerard D and Piecuch, Christopher G and Ponte, Rui M and Thomas, Matthew D (2019) 'The Relationship between United States East Coast Sea Level and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: a Review'. . [Full-Text]
2019 Frajka-Williams, Eleanor and Ansorge, Isabelle J and Baehr, Johanna and Bryden, Harry L and Chidichimo, Maria Paz and Cunningham, Stuart A and Danabasoglu, Gokhan and Dong, Shenfu and Donohue, Kathleen A and Elipot, Shane and others (2019) 'Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: Observed transports and variability'. 6 . [Full-Text]
2019 Worthington E.; Frajka-Williams E.; McCarthy G. (2019) 'Estimating the Deep Overturning Transport Variability at 26°N Using Bottom Pressure Recorders'. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 124 (1):335-348. [DOI]
2019 Murphy, C; Wilby, RL; Matthews, TKR; Thorne, P; Broderick, C; Fealy, R; Hall, J; Harrigan, S; Jones, P; McCarthy, G; MacDonald, N; Noone, S; Ryan, C (2019) 'Multi-century trends to wetter winters and drier summers in the England and Wales precipitation series explained by observational and sampling bias in early records'. International Journal of Climatology, . [DOI] [Full-Text]
2019 Bryden, Harry and King, Brian and McCarthy, Gerard D. and McDonagh, Elaine and Moat, Ben and Smeed, David (2019) 'Reduction in ocean heat transport at 26°N since 2008 cools the eastern subpolar gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean'. . [Full-Text]
2019 Moat B.; Sinha B.; Josey S.; Robson J.; Ortega P.; Sévellec F.; Holliday N.; McCarthy G.; New A.; Hirschi A. (2019) 'Insights into decadal North Atlantic sea surface temperature and ocean heat content variability from an eddy-permitting coupled climate model'. Journal of Climate, 32 (18):6137-6161. [DOI] [Full-Text]
2018 Sutton R.; McCarthy G.; Robson J.; Sinha B.; Archibald A.; Gray L. (2018) 'Atlantic multidecadal variability and the U.K. acsis program'. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 99 (2):415-425. [DOI]
2018 McCarthy G.; Joyce T.; Josey S. (2018) 'Gulf Stream Variability in the Context of Quasi-Decadal and Multidecadal Atlantic Climate Variability'. Geophysical Research Letteres, . [DOI] [Full-Text]
2018 Sinha B.; Smeed D.; McCarthy G.; Moat B.; Josey S.; Hirschi J.; Frajka-Williams E.; Blaker A.; Rayner D.; Madec G. (2018) 'The accuracy of estimates of the overturning circulation from basin-wide mooring arrays'. Progress in Oceanography, 160 :101-123. [DOI] [Full-Text]
2018 R. T. Sutton, G. D. McCarthy, J. Robson, B. Sinha, A. Archibald, L. J. Gray (2018) 'Atlantic Multi-decadal Variability and the UK ACSIS programme'. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 99 :415-425. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0266.1 [Full-Text]
2018 Robson, Jon and Sutton, Rowan T and Archibald, Alex and Cooper, Fenwick and Christensen, Matthew and Gray, Lesley J and Holliday, N Penny and Macintosh, Claire and McMillan, Malcolm and Moat, Ben and others (2018) 'Recent multivariate changes in the North Atlantic climate system, with a focus on 2005--2016'. 38 (14):5050-5076. [Full-Text]
2018 McCarthy, GD and Joyce, TM and Josey, SA (2018) 'Gulf Stream variability in the context of quasi-decadal and multi-decadal Atlantic climate variability'. . [Full-Text]
2018 Worthington, E. L. and Frajka-Williams, E. and McCarthy, G. D. (2018) 'Estimating the Deep Overturning Transport Variability at 26° N Using Bottom Pressure Recorders'. .
2018 Murphy, C; Broderick, C; Burt, TP; Curley, M; Duffy, C; Hall, J; Harrigan, S; Matthews, TKR; Macdonald, N; McCarthy, G; McCarthy, MP; Mullan, D; Noone, S; Osborn, TJ; Ryan, C; Sweeney, J; Thorne, PW; Walsh, S; Wilby, RL (2018) 'A 305-year continuous monthly rainfall series for the island of Ireland (1711-2016)'. Climate of the Past, 14 :413-440. [DOI] [Full-Text]
2018 McCarthy, Gerard D and Thorne, Peter W (2018) 'Atlantic slowdown boosts surface warming'. 559 (7714):340-341. [Full-Text]
2018 Matthews, TKR, Murphy, C., McCarthy, G., Broderick, C., Wilby R.L. (2018) 'Super Storm Desmond: a process-based assessment'. Environmental Research Letters (ERL), 13 (014024):1-13. [Link] [DOI] [Full-Text]
2018 Smeed D.; Josey S.; Beaulieu C.; Johns W.; Moat B.; Frajka-Williams E.; Rayner D.; Meinen C.; Baringer M.; Bryden H.; McCarthy G. (2018) 'The North Atlantic Ocean Is in a State of Reduced Overturning'. Geophysical Research Letteres, 45 (3):1527-1533. [DOI] [Full-Text]
2017 McCarthy, GD; Menary, MB; Mecking, JV; Moat, BI; Johns, WE; Andrews, MB; Rayner, D; Smeed, DA (2017) 'The importance of deep, basinwide measurements in optimized Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation observing arrays'. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 122 :1808-1826. [DOI] [Full-Text]
2017 Baringer, M. O.; Smeed, D. A.; Willis, J.; Lankhorst, M.; Hobbs, W. R.; Dong, S.; McCarthy, G. D.; Rayner, D.; Johns, W. E.; Goni, G.; (2017) '[Global Oceans] Meridional overturning circulation observations in the North Atlantic Ocean [in State of the Climate in 2016]'. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 98 (8):S84-S87. [Full-Text]
2016 Moat, Bengamin I. and Josey, Simon and Sinha, Bablu and Blaker, Adam and Smeed, David A. and McCarthy, Gerard D. and Johns, William and Hirschi, Jo\"el and Frajka-Williams, Eleanor and Rayner, Darren and others (2016) 'Major Variations in Sub-Tropical North Atlantic Heat Transport at Short Timescales: Causes and Consequences'. . [Full-Text]
2016 Duchez, Aur\'elie and Frajka-Williams, Eleanor and Josey, Simon A. and Evans, Dafydd G. and Grist, Jeremy P. and Marsh, Robert and McCarthy, Gerard D. and Sinha, Bablu and Berry, David I. and Hirschi, Jo\"el J.-M. (2016) 'Drivers of exceptionally cold North Atlantic Ocean temperatures and their link to the 2015 European heat wave'. . [Full-Text]
2016 Frajka-Williams, E and Meinen, CS and Johns, WE and Smeed, DA and Duchez, A and Lawrence, AJ and Cuthbertson, DA and McCarthy, GD and Bryden, HL and Baringer, MO and others (2016) 'Compensation between meridional flow components of the Atlantic MOC at 26°-N'. 12 (2). [Full-Text]
2015 Perez-Hernandez, M. D. and McCarthy, G. D. and Velez-Belchi, P. and Smeed, D. A. and Fraile-Nuez, E and Hern\'andez-Guerra, A. (2015) 'The Canary basin contribution to the seasonal cycle of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26°N'. (In Press). [Full-Text]
2015 Arndt, DS; Blunden, J; Willett, KW; Aaron-Morrison, AP; Ackerman, SA; Adamu, JI; Albanil, A; Alfaro, EJ; Allan, R; Alley, RB; Alvarez, L; Alves, LM; Amador, JA; Andreassen, LM; Antonov, J; Applequist, S; Arendt, A; Arevalo, J; Arguez, A; Arndt, DS; Banzon, V; Barichivich, J; Baringer, MO; Barreira, S; Baxter, S; Bazo, J; Becker, A; Behrenfeld, MJ; Bell, GD; Benedetti, A; Bernhard, G; Berrisford, P; Berry, DI; Bettolli, ML; Bhatt, US; Bidegain, M; Bindoff, N; Bissolli, P; Blake, ES; Blenman, RC; Blunden, J; Bond, NA; Bosilovich, M; Box, JE; Boudet, D; Boyer, T; Braathen, GO; Bromwich, DH; Brown, LC; Brown, R; Bulygina, ON; Burgess, D; Calderon, B; Camargo, SJ; Campbell, JD; Cappelen, J; Carrasco, G; Carter, B; Chambers, DP; Chandler, E; Chevallier, F; Christiansen, HH; Christy, JR; Chung, D; Ciais, P; Clem, KR; Coelho, CAS; Cogley, JG; Coldewey-Egbers, M; Colwell, S; Cooper, OR; Copland, L; Cronin, MF; Crouch, J; Cunningham, SA; Davis, SM; De Jeu, RAM; Degenstein, D; Demircan, M; Derksen, C; Destin, D; Diamond, HJ; Dlugokencky, J; Dohan, K; Dolman, AJ; Domingues, CM; Donat, MG; Dong, S; Dorigo, WA; Drozdov, DS; Duguay, CR; Dunn, RJH; Duran-Quesada, AM; Dutton, GS; Ebrahim, A; Elkins, JW; Epstein, HE; Espinoza, JC; Evans, TE; Famiglietti, JS; Fateh, S; Fauchereau, NC; Feely, RA; Fenimore, C; Fettweis, X; Fioletov, VE; Flemming, J; Fogarty, CT; Fogt, RL; Folland, CK; Foster, M; Francis, SD; Franz, BA; Freeland, H; Frith, SM; Froidevaux, L; Frost, GV; Ganter, C; Garzoli, S; Gerland, S; Gitau, W; Gobron, N; Goldenberg, SB; Goni, G; Gonzalez, IT; Good, SA; Goto, A; Griffin, KS; Grist, J; Grooss, JU; Guard, C; Gupta, SK; Hagos, S; Haimberger, L; Hall, BD; Halpert, MS; Hamlington, BD; Hanna, E; Hanssen-Bauer, I; Harris, I; Heidinger, AK; Heikkila, A; Heim, RR; Hendricks, S; Hernandez, M; Hidalgo, HG; Hilburn, K; Ho, SP; Hobbs, WR; Hu, ZZ; Huelsing, H; Hurst, DF; Inness, A; Ishii, M; Jeffers, B; Jeffries, MO; Jevrejeva, S; Jin, XZ; John, V; Johns, WE; Johnsen, B; Johnson, B; Johnson, GC; Jones, PD; Josey, SA; Joyette, S; Jumaux, G; Kabidi, K; Kaiser, JW; Kang, KK; Kanzow, TO; Kao, HY; Kazemi, A; Keller, LM; Kendon, M; Kennedy, J; Kerr, K; Kheyrollah Pour, H; Kholodov, AL; Khoshkam, M; Kidd, R; Kieke, D; Kim, H; Kim, SJ; Kimberlain, TB; Klotzbach, P; Knaff, JA; Kobayashi, S; Kohler, J; Korshunova, NN; Koskela, T; Kramarova, N; Kratz, DP; Kruger, A; Kruk, MC; Kumar, A; Kwok, R; Lagerloef, GSE; Lakkala, K; Lander, MA; Landsea, CW; Lankhorst, M; Lantz, K; Lazzara, MA; Leuliette, E; L' Heureux, M; Lieser, JL; Lin, II; Liu, H; Liu, Y; Locarnini, R; Loeb, NG; Long, CS; Lorrey, AM; Loyola, D; Lui, YY; Lumpkin, R; Luo, JJ; Luojus, K; Lyman, JM; Macara, GR; Maddux, BC; Malkova, GV; Manney, G; Marcellin-Honore' , V; Marchenko, SS; Marengo, JA; Marra, JJ; Martinez-Guingla, R; Massom, RA; Mata, MM; Mathis, JT; Mazloff, M; McBride, C; McCarthy, G; McGree, S; McLean, N; McVicar, TR; Mears, CA; Meier, W; Meinen, CS; Mekonnen, A; Melzer, T; Menendez, M; Mengistu Tsidu, G; Meredith, MP; Merrifield, MA; Mitchum, GT; Monteiro, P; Montzka, SA; Morice, C; Mote, T; Mudryk, L; Muhle, J; Mullan, AB; Muller, R; Nash, ER; Naveira Garabato, AC; Nerem, RS; Newman, L; Newman, PA; Nicolaus, M; Nieto, JJ; Noetzli, J; O' Neel, S; Oberman, NG; Ogallo, LA; Oki, T; Oludhe, CS; Osborn, TJ; Overland, J; Oyunjargal, L; Pabon, D; Parinussa, RM; Park, EH; Parker, D; Parsons, R; Pasch, RJ; Pascual-Ramirez, R; Pelto, MS; Peng, L; Perovich, D; Persson, POG; Peterson, TC; Pe (2015) 'STATE OF THE CLIMATE IN 2014'. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96 :1-267. [DOI]
2015 Baringer, Molly O.; McCarthy, Gerard D.; Willis, J.; Smeed, David A.; Rayner, D.; Johns, W. E.; Meinen, C. S.; Lankhorst, M.; Send, U.; Cunningham, S. A.; (2015) '[Global Oceans] Meridional overturning circulation observations in the North Atlantic Ocean [in State of the Climate in 2014]'. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96 (7):S78-S80.
2015 McDonagh, E. L. and King, B. A. and Bryden, H. L. and Courtois, P. and Szuts, Z. and Baringer, M. O. and Cunningham, S. A. and Atkinson, C. P. and McCarthy, G. D. (2015) 'Continuous Estimate of Atlantic Oceanic Freshwater Flux at 26.5°N'. . [Full-Text]
2015 McCarthy, Gerard D. and Haigh, Ivan D. and Hirschi, Jo\"el J.-M. and Grist, Jeremy P. and Smeed, David A. (2015) 'Ocean impact on decadal Atlantic climate variability revealed by sea-level observations'. 521 :508-510. [Full-Text]
2015 McCarthy, G. D. and Gleeson, E. and Walsh, S. (2015) 'The influence of ocean variations on the climate of Ireland'. 70 (8):242-245. [Full-Text]
2015 McCarthy, G. D. and Smeed, D. A. and Johns, W. E. and Frajka-Williams, E. and Moat, B. I. and Rayner, D. and Baringer, M. O. and Meinen, C. S. and Collins, J. and Bryden, H. L. (2015) 'Measuring the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26\textordmasculineN'. Progress in Oceanography, 130 :91-111. [Full-Text]
2015 Blaker, Adam T and Hirschi, Jo\"el J-M and McCarthy, Gerard and Sinha, Bablu and Taws, Sarah and Marsh, Robert and Coward, Andrew and de Cuevas, Beverly (2015) 'Historical analogues of the recent extreme minima observed in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26° N'. 44 (1-2):457-473. [Full-Text]
2014 Smeed, DA and McCarthy, G and Cunningham, SA and Frajka-Williams, E and Rayner, D and Johns, WE and Meinen, CS and Baringer, MO and Moat, BI and Duchez, A and others (2014) 'Observed decline of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation 2004--2012'. 10 (1):29-38. [Full-Text]
2014 Duchez, Aur\'elie and Hirschi, Joel J.-M. and Blaker, A. T. and Bryden, H. L. and De Cuevas, B. and Atkinson, C. P. and McCarthy, G. D. and Frajka-Williams, E. and Rayner, D. and Smeed, D. A. and others (2014) 'A new index for the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26°N'. (Early Online Release). [Full-Text]
2014 Bryden, H. L. and King, B. A. and McCarthy, G. D. and McDonagh, E. L. (2014) 'Impact of a 30\% reduction in Atlantic meridional overturning during 2009-2010'. 11 :789-810. [Full-Text]
2013 Achberger, C.,Ackerman, S.A.,Albanil, A.,Alexander, P.,Alfaro, E.J.,Allan, R.,Alves, L.M.,Amador, J.A.,Ambenje, P.,Andrianjafinirina, S.,Antonov, J.,Aravequia, J.A.,Arendt, A.,Arévalo, J.,Arndt, D.S.,Ashik, I.,Atheru, Z.,Banzon, V.,Baringer, M.O.,Barreira, S.,Barriopedro, D.E.,Beard, G.,Becker, A.,Behrenfeld, M.J.,Bell, G.D.,Benedetti, A.,Bernhard, G.,Berrisford, P.,Berry, D.I.,Bhatt, U.,Bidegain, M.,Bindoff, N.,Bissolli, P.,Blake, E.S.,Blunden, J.,Booneeady, R.,Bosilovich, M.,Box, J.E.,Boyer, T.,Braathen, G.O.,Bromwich, D.H.,Brown, R.,Brown, L.,Bruhwiler, L.,Bulygina, O.N.,Burgess, D.,Burrows, J.,Calderón, B.,Camargo, S.J.,Campbell, J.,Cao, Y.,Cappelen, J.,Carrasco, G.,Chambers, D.P.,Chang'A, L.,Chappell, P.,Chehade, W.,Cheliah, M.,Christiansen, H.H.,Christy, J.R.,Ciais, P.,Coelho, C.A.S.,Cogley, J.G.,Colwell, S.,Cross, J.N.,Crouch, J.,Cunningham, S.A.,Dacic, M.,De Jeu, R.A.M.,Dekaa, F.S.,Demircan, M.,Derksen, C.,Diamond, H.J.,Dlugokencky, E.J.,Dohan, K.,Dolman, A.J.,Domingues, C.M.,Dong, S.,Dorigo, W.A.,Drozdov, D.S.,Duguay, C.R.,Dunn, R.J.H.,Dúran-Quesada, A.M.,Dutton, G.S.,Ehmann, C.,Elkins, J.W.,Euscátegui, C.,Famiglietti, J.S.,Fang, F.,Fauchereau, N.,Feely, R.A.,Fekete, B.M.,Fenimore, C.,Fioletov, V.E.,Fogarty, C.T.,Fogt, R.L.,Folland, C.K.,Foster, M.J.,Frajka-Williams, E.,Franz, B.A.,Frith, S.H.,Frolov, I.,Ganter, C.,Garzoli, S.,Geai, M.-L.,Gerland, S.,Gitau, W.,Gleason, K.L.,Gobron, N.,Goldenberg, S.B.,Goni, G.,Good, S.A.,Gottschalck, J.,Gregg, M.C.,Griffiths, G.,Grooß, J.-U.,Guard, C.C.,Gupta, S.K.,Hall, B.D.,Halpert, M.S.,Harada, Y.,Hauri, C.,Heidinger, A.K.,Heikkilä, A.,Heim Jr., R.R.,Heimbach, P.,Hidalgo, H.G.,Hilburn, K.,Ho, S.-P.,Hobbs, W.R.,Holgate, S.,Hovsepyan, A.,Hu, Z.-Z.,Hughes, P.,Hurst, D.F.,Ingvaldsen, R.,Inness, A.,Jaimes, E.,Jakobsson, M.,James, A.I.,Jeffries, M.O.,Johns, W.E.,Johnsen, B.,Johnson, G.C.,Johnson, B.,Jones, L.T.,Jumaux, G.,Kabidi, K.,Kaiser, J.W.,Kamga, A.,Kang, K.-K.,Kanzow, T.O.,Kao, H.-Y.,Keller, L.M.,Kennedy, J.J.,Key, J.,Khatiwala, S.,Kheyrollah Pour, H.,Kholodov, A.L.,Khoshkam, M.,Kijazi, A.,Kikuchi, T.,Kim, B.-M.,Kim, S.-J.,Kimberlain, T.B.,Knaff, J.A.,Korshunova, N.N.,Koskela, T.,Kousky, V.E.,Kramarova, N.,Kratz, D.P.,Krishfield, R.,Kruger, A.,Kruk, M.C.,Kumar, A.,Lagerloef, G.S.E.,Lakkala, K.,Lander, M.A.,Landsea, C.W.,Lankhorst, M.,Laurila, T.,Lazzara, M.A.,Lee, C.,Leuliette, E.,Levitus, S.,L'Heureux, M.,Lieser, J.,Lin, I.-I.,Liu, Y.Y.,Liu, Y.,Liu, H.,Liu, Y.,Lobato-Sánchez, R.,Locarnini, R.,Loeb, N.G.,Loeng, H.,Long, C.S.,Lorrey, A.M.,Luhunga, P.,Lumpkin, R.,Luo, J.-J.,Lyman, J.M.,Macdonald, A.M.,Maddux, B.C.,Malekela, C.,Manney, G.,Marchenko, S.S.,Marengo, J.A.,Marotzke, J.,Marra, J.J.,Martínez-Güingla, R.,Massom, R.A.,Mathis, J.T.,McBride, C.,McCarthy, G.,McVicar, T.R.,Mears, C.,Meier, W.,Meinen, C.S.,Menéndez, M.,Merrifield, M.A.,Mitchard, E.,Mitchum, G.T.,Montzka, S.A.,Morcrette, J.-J.,Mote, T.,Mühle, J.,Mühr, B.,Mullan, A.B.,Müller, R.,Nash, E.R.,Nerem, R.S.,Newlin, M.L.,Newman, P.A.,Ng'Ongolo, H.,Nieto, J.J.,Nishino, S.,Nitsche, H.,Noetzli, J.,Oberman, N.G.,Obregón, A.,Ogallo, L.A.,Oludhe, C.S.,Omar, M.I.,Overland, J.,Oyunjargal, L.,Parinussa, R.M.,Park, G.-H.,Park, E.-H.,Parker, D.,Pasch, R.J.,Pascual-Ramírez, R.,Pelto, M.S.,Penalba, O.,Peng, L.,Perovich, D.K.,Pezza, A.B.,Phillips, D.,Pickart, R.,Pinty, B.,Pitts, M.C.,Purkey, S.G.,Quegan, S.,Quintana, J.,Rabe, B.,Rahimzadeh, F.,Raholijao, N.,Raiva, I.,Rajeevan, M.,Ramiandrisoa, V.,Ramos, A.,Ranivoarissoa, S.,Rayner, N.A.,Rayner, D (2013) 'State of the climate in 2012'. 94 (8). [Link]
2013 Roberts, C. D. and Waters, J. and Peterson, K. A. and Palmer, M. D. and McCarthy, G. D. and Frajka-Williams, E. and Haines, K. and Lea, D. J. and Martin, M. J. and Storkey, D. and others (2013) 'Atmosphere drives recent interannual variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5°N'. (10.1002/grl.50930). [Full-Text]
2013 Cunnningham, S. A. and Roberts, C. D. and Frajka-Williams, E. and Johns, W. E. and Hobbs, W. and Palmer, M. D. and Rayner, D. and Smeed, D. A. and McCarthy, G. D. (2013) 'Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation slowdown cooled the subtropical ocean'. . [Full-Text]
2012 McCarthy, GD and King, BA and Cipollini, P and McDonagh, EL and Blundell, JR and Biastoch, Arne (2012) 'On the sub-decadal variability of South Atlantic Antarctic Intermediate Water'. 39 (10). [Full-Text]
2012 McCarthy, G and Frajka-Williams, E and Johns, WE and Baringer, MO and Meinen, CS and Bryden, HL and Rayner, D and Duchez, A and Roberts, C and Cunningham, SA (2012) 'Observed interannual variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5 N'. 39 (19). [Full-Text]
2011 Bryden, Harry L and King, Brian A and McCarthy, Gerard D (2011) 'South Atlantic overturning circulation at 24 S'. 69 (1):38-55. [Full-Text]
2011 McCarthy, Gerard and McDonagh, Elaine and King, Brian (2011) 'Decadal variability of thermocline and intermediate waters at 24 S in the South Atlantic'. 41 (1):157-165. [Full-Text]

Other Journal

Year Publication
2021 Barbara Berx, Denis Volkov, Johanna Baehr, Molly O. Baringer, Peter Brandt, Kristin Burmeister, Stuart Cunningham, Marieke Femke de Jong, Laura de Steur, Shenfu Dong, Eleanor Frajka-Williams, Gustavo J. Goni, N. Penny Holliday, Rebecca Hummels, Randi Ingvaldsen, Kerstin Jochumsen, William Johns, Steingrimur Jónsson, Johannes Karstensen, Dagmar Kieke, Richard Krishfield, Matthias Lankhorst, Karin Margetha H. Larsen, Isabela Le Bras, Craig M. Lee, Feili Li, Susan Lozier, Andreas Macrander, Gerard McCarthy, Christian Mertens, Ben Moat, Martin Moritz, Renellys Perez, Igor Polyakov, Andrey Proshutinsky, Berit Rabe, Monika Rhein, Claudia Schmid, Øystein Skagseth, David A. Smeed, Mary-Louise Timmermans, Wilken-Jon von Appen, Bill Williams, Rebecca Woodgate, and Igor Yashayaev (2021) 'Climate-Relevant Ocean Transport Measurements in the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans' n Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards, :10-11. [DOI]

Conference Contribution

Year Publication
2021 Gerard D McCarthy, Levke Caesar, Emma Worthington, Samuel Diabaté, Tasneem Ahmed (2021) AGU Fall Meeting 2021 OS13A-03 - No contradiction between in-situ, surface, and paleo reconstructions of the AMOC New Orleans, 13/12/2021-17/12/2021.
2019 Gerard McCarthy (2019) IUGG General Assembly IAPSO Medal Winner Overturning Variability with Observations Montreal (CA), 9–15 July 2019, .
2019 Gerard McCarthy, Robin Edwards, Niamh Cahill, Andrew Parnell (2019) Geoscience for Climate Action Sea Level Rise in Ireland Dublin, .
2019 Gerard McCarthy (2019) GCOS Sea Level Meeting The importance of Sea Level Measurements Custom House, Dublin, .
2019 Gerard McCarthy (2019) Our Ocean Wealth Our Ocean Wealth, Cork (IE), 10 June 2019 Cork, Ireland, .
2017 Gerard McCarthy (2017) Observing and Understanding the AMOC Atlantic Overturning variability from decades to multi-decades Brest, France, .
2015 Gerard McCarthy (2015) International RAPID-US AMOC Meeting Atlantic Overturning variability as observed by the RAPID array Bristol, UK, .
2014 Gerard McCarthy (2014) RAPID-AMOC 10-year anniversary meeting 10 Years of AMOC Observations with RAPID London, UK, .
2013 Gerard McCarthy (2013) International RAPID-US AMOC Meeting Results from the 26N Mooring Array Baltimore, USA, .

Published Report

Year Publication
2023 Glenn Nolan , Caroline Cusack , Deirdre Fitzhenry , Alan Berry , Ciaran Broderick , Deirdre Brophy , Brian Burke , Janina V. Büscher , Levke Caesar , Rachel R. Cave , Dave Clarke, Margot Cronin , Tomasz Dabrowski , Eoghan Daly , Elvira de Eyto, Felicity Donnelly, Brian Doyle, Sarah Gallagher , Michael Gillooly , John Hanley , Seán Kelly, Colm Lordan , Gerard D. McCarthy , Georgina McDermott , Joseph McGovern , Evin McGovern , Triona McGrath, Cóilín Minto , Conor Murphy , Hazem Nagy , Stephen Newton , Méabh Nic Guidhir , Ian O’Connor , Garvan O’Donnell , Agnieszka I. Olbert , Marcin R. Penk, Russell Poole , Andrew Power , David Reid , David Tierney, Ashly Ulthaman , Louise Vaughan, Robert Wilkes , Tsuyuko Yamanaka (2023) Irish Ocean Climate and Ecosystem Status Report 2023. The Marine Institute, . [Link]
2021 McCarthy, G.D et al (Contributing actor) in Gulev, S. K., P. W. ThorneJ. Ahn, F. J. Dentener, C. M. Domingues, S. Gerland, D. Gong, D. S. Kaufman, H. C. Nnamchi, J. Quaas, J. A. Rivera, S. Sathyendranath, S. L. Smith, B. Trewin, K. von Shuckmann, R. S. Vose, (2021) Chapter 2. Changing State of the Climate System, In: Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University, . [Link]
2021 Tor Eldevik, Leif Anderson, Helene Asbjørnsen, Beatriz Balino, Jean-Marie Beckers, Henrique Cabral, Julie Deshayes, Frederic Dias, Jean-Claude Duplessy, Marta Estrada Miyare, Bogi Hansen, Gerard McCarthy, Michael Norton, Tim Palmer, Lars Smedsrud, Petteri Uotila, Erik van Sebille, Martin Visbeck, Lars Walløe (2021) A sea of change: Europe’s future in the Atlantic realm. European Academies Science Advisory Council Policy Report, . [Link]
2017 G. D. McCarthy, D. A. Smeed, S. A. Cunningham, C. D. Roberts (2017) Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership, . [Link] [Full-Text]
2013 Smeed, David and Wood, Richard and Cunningham, Stuart and McCarthy, Gerard and Kuhlbrodt, Till and Dye, Stephen (2013) Impacts of climate change on the Atlantic Heat Conveyor. mccip.org.uk, .
2012 Gerard McCarthy (PI) (2012) RRS Discovery cruise 382. National Oceanography Centre, .
2012 Cunningham, S., McCarthy, G. D., Collins, J. (2012) James Cook cruise JC064, 10 Sep-09 Oct 2011. RAPID moorings cruise report. National Oceanography Centre, .


Year Publication
2015 McCarthy, G. D. and Haigh, I. D. (2015) The Atlantic is entering a cool phase that will change the world’s weather. [Blog]

Online Database

Year Publication
2017 Smeed, David; Rayner, Darren; McCarthy, Gerard; Moat, Ben; Johns, William E; Baringer, Molly O; Meinen, Christopher S; Collins, Julie; (2017) RAPID-MOC time series April 2004 to February 2017. [Online Database]
2016 Smeed, David A. and McCarthy, Gerard D. and Rayner, Darren and Moat, Bengamin I. and Johns, W.E. and Baringer, M.O. and Meinen, C.S. (2016) Atlantic meridional overturning circulation observed by the RAPID-MOCHA-WBTS (RAPID-Meridional Overturning Circulation and Heatflux Array-Western Boundary Time Series) array at 26N from 2004 to 2015. [Online Database]


Year Publication
2011 McCarthy, Gerard (2011) Variability of thermocline and intermediate waters in the South Atlantic. [Thesis]


Year Publication
2022 Caesar L.; McCarthy G.D.; Thornalley D.J.R.; Cahill N.; Rahmstorf S. (2022) Reply to: Atlantic circulation change still uncertain. [Letters] [DOI]
Certain data included herein are derived from the © Web of Science (2024) of Clarivate. All rights reserved.


Client Description
Joint Oireachtas Committee on Climate Action


Language Reading Writing Speaking
English Fluent Fluent Fluent
Irish Fluent Fluent Fluent

Professional Associations

Description Function From / To
Royal Meteorological Society Fellow -
JPI Knowledge Hub for Sea Level Rise Member -
American Geophysical Union Member -
European Geophysical Union Member -
Challenger Society for Marine Science Member -

Honors and Awards

Date Title Awarding Body
01/01/2016 National Oceanography Centre Early Career Researcher Award National Oceanography Centre
01/01/2019 Maynooth University Early Career Research Achievement Award Maynooth University
01/07/2019 IAPSO Early Career Scientist Medal IAPSO
01/01/2019 Faculty of Social Sciences Early Career Research Achievement Award Faculty of Social Sciences, Maynooth University


Committee Function From / To
North Atlantic Virtual Institute Member of Steering Committee 01/09/2015 -
European Acadamies Science Advisory Council Working Group Member on the Importance of Ocean Circulation for Europe 01/05/2019 -
Department of Geography Research Committee Member 01/12/2017 -
Scientific Council for Ocean Research (Ireland) Member 01/12/2018 -
Weather Member of Editorial Board 01/09/2016 - 31/12/2018


Employer Position From / To
National Oceanography Centre Research Fellow 20/02/2011 - 31/10/2017
Maynooth University Lecturer 11/11/2017 -


Start date Institution Qualification Subject
University College Cork BSc Physics and Applied Maths
University of Southampton PhD Physical Oceanography

Teaching Interests

There are three strands to my teaching: traditional undergraduate lectures (GY369 Oceanography), lecture and computer-practical based postgraduate (GY667 The Ocean and Climate Change), and field skills (GY671 Field Course, GY206 Field Course).

In 2022/23, I will be developing a new module for the MSc Climate Change called 'Climate Science in Action'

GY369: Oceanography, 2018-present, co-ordinator and lecturer
GY667: The Ocean and Climate Change (MSc), 2019-present, co-ordinator and lecturer
GY671: Field Course (MSc), SMART Sea School on the Celtic Voyager, 2018-2021
GY206: Field Course, 2nd year, 2018

Current Students

Student Name Degree Supervision